The labor market of Iran faces the phenomenon of poor workers, according to which part of workers employed in industrial workshops are below the poverty line, which, in terms of income, have no significant difference with the unemployed.
Employment and poverty are two main priorities of the twelfth government, although since its inception in the 12th year since its inception in 1996, its executive steps have been taken, but senior government officials, especially the president, have come up with various platforms of good practices in the area of employment And poverty announced next year.
The fact is that unemployment has become a crisis in the economy over the last few years; a crisis that is also mentioned among the six top-notch economies. Meanwhile, the survey of the status of various labor market indicators is reviewed by official statistics. According to government estimates, in 1998, in addition to the current unemployment rate, 838,000 new job seekers will be in demand. At the same time, given that a large proportion of jobseekers are university graduates, in 1996, 70% of job applicants are expected to be graduate students.
On the other hand, unemployment is one of the most important indicator of the labor market situation for policymakers; in this section, statistics show that the unemployment rate for young people aged 15 to 24, based on 95-year labor force results, was 29.2 percent. The unemployment rate for youth living in urban areas of the country was 29.3% this year. The unemployment rate of university graduates has also deepened the “unemployment crisis” over the last few years; according to the official statistics of the Ministry of Labor in November, the unemployment rate of a graduate or graduate population in 1995 20 percent, up from 1.5 percent year-over-year. The rate for graduates or people studying was 14.1 percent in the men’s group and 31.1 percent in the women’s group.
The other indicator, which is considered one of the most important problems in the labor market, is the increase in the population inactive. The passive population is said to be a group of people who, despite having a working age, are not in any group of employees or unemployed. In this regard, studies by the Majlis Research Center show that in 1995, 60.6 percent of the working-age population was inactive and only 39.4 percent of the population was active in the working age population.
At the same time, according to the results of the studies of the Research Center of the Parliament, “the average age of the working population of the country”, the age of the working age population has tended to be more inclined towards older age groups. Experts from the center warned that this issue could be problematic in the coming years as the age range of 30 to 39 years old is approaching retirement age.
Also, the difference in the unemployment rate of the provinces has led to the regional imbalance of unemployment. Thus, the unemployment rate in the provinces, according to young age groups, women and graduates, shows that, first, the difference in the unemployment rate of the provinces is high and, in addition, the unemployment situation Young people, women and especially young people and women with higher education in some provinces of the country are very inappropriate.
According to the results of studies from the research center, the unemployment rate of educated youth varies between 50% and 60% in some western provinces of the country. In the case of educated young women, the unemployment rate in these provinces is 63% to 78%.
The imbalance between supply and demand for labor, or “job misconduct,” is also reflected in labor market dysfunctional policies over the past years in these years. According to the results of the workforce in 1995, the number of unemployed has reached 3,200,000 people, of which about one million and 300,000 have completed university studies. Accordingly, last year, while 42% of the unemployed were university graduates, only 24% of those with higher education graduated this year, and this illustrates the imbalance between supply and demand in the labor market.
The hidden unemployment is also one of the undesirable indicators of the labor market, according to estimates by the Majlis Research Center of this section. The hidden unemployment rate in the country last year was 22.5%, which is about 10% higher than that of the same year. Hidden unemployment consists of a group of people who are considered to be employed but their employment is not sustainable; on the other hand, hidden unemployment includes a part of the inactive population that is on the verge of entering the labor market, and the probability of unemployment thereafter It is high to enter the labor market.
Unofficial employment is another indicator of the job market, although there are jobs in the world, but they are looking to organize these jobs; informal jobs include those who do not have insurance benefits, while no employment status People will not be monitored. In this index, according to the findings of the Majlis Research Center in 1995, only 41% of the insurance industry was employed, and 59% of the unemployed were not insured.
At the same time, the labor market of Iran faces the phenomenon of poor workers, with 61 percent of poor households, employed in the wage and salary wage sector of the private sector, 14.25 percent of the employed as independent workers in the agricultural sector and 18.73 Percentage of employees are also employed as non-farm independent workers, and part of the workers employed in industrial workshops are below the poverty line and with low wages, and in terms of income, there is no significant difference with the unemployed.
According to the report, the government has committed to create a million and 33 thousand jobs in 12 different economic sectors for the next year, which, in order to achieve this goal, predicts a budget of 327 trillion tomans for job creation in the next year, which if agreed by the parliament of 73 thousand And 400 billion USD for employment through production plans and 254,300 billion USD from the implementation of development projects, which, of course, will be allocated by parliament.
Undoubtedly, the exit from the unemployment crisis requires long-term job-creation policies, policies that, along with financing and capital financing facilities, should involve government development interventions in the course of implementing projects.
However, a huge number of unemployed unemployed people from previous years and new job seekers are waiting for the government to achieve its goals in 1997. A job that is not just based on a mere facility but also an approach to increase production capacity and interventions.
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